Remove all old installed but unused kernels

I just noticed I had 8 kernels installed on a machine. dont need but one…. so I rebooted to make sure I was using the newest, and removed all the old ones via these simple commands :   Ubuntu / Debian / dpkg / Apt: dpkg -l ‘linux-*’ | sed ‘/^ii/!d;/'”$(uname -r | sed “s/\(.*\)-\([^0-9]\+\)/\1/”)”‘/d;s/^[^ ]* [^ ]* \([^ ]*\).*/\1/;/[0-9]/!d’ | xargs sudo apt-get -y purge Thats a one liner, so just copy paste the whole thing. Centos / RHEL / Yum / RPM: uname -r See which kernel is being used. rpm -q kernel get a list of installed kernels yum install yum-utils make sure yum-utils is installed package-cleanup –oldkernels –count=1 Cleanup old packages, the count can be any number and it will keep that number of the latest packages. count 2 will keep the current newest and one more, 3 will keep the current newest and 2 more and so on. nano yum.conf edit /etc/yum.conf and look for installonly_limit and change it to any number, this was the kernels will be cleaned up automatically. I have mine set to 3. installonly_limit=3  

Generate file of fixed size via CLI

We recently moved a hosting to a new data center and wanted to test speeds, so I needed fixed size files to see what kind of speeds people could achieve while downloading them. I decided on the arbitrary numbers of 100MB and 500MB. Heres how I generated fixes size files via bash. for 500 MB : dd if=/dev/zero of=file.txt count=1000 bs=524288 for 100MB : dd if=/dev/zero of=file.txt count=10240 bs=10240 Now you can use other things such as /dev/random etc for this. but this is extremely quick. the 500MB file was finished in .47 seconds. That’s less than half a second….

PHP PDO Mysql 101

PHP PDO MySQL Needed to make a simple php script with mysql in it, so I decided to use PDO because… well peer pressure 😐 so heres a basic PHP PDO MYsql script. The idea is I have a table called table with a field called field in a database called somedatabase. We have 1000 rows of data in said table and we need to pick a random result from the 1000 rows. This is just 1 way of doing it, it isnt the most optimized, neither is it the cleanest. but this will give you a basic idea of how to connect to the DB and get a result. you can expand this of course to do very tricky queries.   // Add a user variable for PDO, mysql user $user=’root’; // Add a password for PDO, mysql password $password=’password’; // Setup the mysql connection info $dsn = ‘mysql:dbname=somedatabase;host=127.0.0.1’; // Wrap the actual connection to mysql in try so if it doesn’t work you can catch the exception and echo the message. try { $dbh = new PDO($dsn, $user, $password, array(PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_INIT_COMMAND => ‘SET NAMES \’UTF8\”)); } catch (PDOException $e) { echo ‘Connection failed: ‘ . $e->getMessage(); } // Pick a number from 1 – 1000 and assign to $rc $rc = mt_rand(1, 1000); // Assign the SQL query selecting the data from our DB / field to variable $sql $sql = “SELECT field FROM table LIMIT 1 OFFSET $rc”; // run the query and for each one assign to variable $field foreach ($dbh->query($sql) as […]

secure copy ( SCP ) howto 102

Secure Copy (SCP) provides a secure and authenticated method for copying files between hosts. SCP relies on Secure Shell (SSH). Copy the file “somefile.txt” from a remote host to the local host scp [email protected]:somefile.txt /some/local/directory Copy the file “somefile.txt” from the local host to a remote host scp somefile.txt [email protected]:/some/remote/directory Copy the directory “somedir” from the local host to a remote host’s directory “anotherdir” scp -r somedir [email protected]:/some/remote/directory/anotherdir Copy the file “somefile.txt” from remote host “example1.com” to remote host “example2.com” scp [email protected]:/some/remote/directory/foobar.txt \ [email protected]:/some/remote/directory/ Copying the files “somefile.txt” and “anotherfile.txt” from the local host to your home directory on the remote host scp somefile.txt anotherfile.txt [email protected]:~ Copy the file “somefile.txt” from the local host to a remote host using port 1234 scp -P 1234 somefile.txt [email protected]:/some/remote/directory Copy multiple files from the remote host to your current directory on the local host scp [email protected]:/some/remote/directory/\{1,2,3\} . scp [email protected]:~/\{somefile1.txt,somefile2.txt\} .

Screen start issues

Screen is a tool that allows users to resume a session after they have disconnected. Screen prevents a session from “timing out” or disconnecting SSH connections or local terminal emulators. A single Screen session has the ability to host multiple sessions or “windows.” I just spun up a new ubuntu 12.04 VPS and installed some basics, I needed to use the screen utility but for some reason i was having issues with screen starting up. well it seems screen didn’t create the socket storage directory and kept giving me this error : Cannot make directory ‘/var/run/screen’: Permission denied It’s a very simple fix : sudo mkdir /var/run/screen sudo chmod 775 /var/run/screen sudo chgrp utmp /var/run/screen